The study explored the implementation of social sustainability in the oil and gas industry in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. A conceptual framework for social sustainability in the region was developed with four fundamental indices of Equity and Justice, Partnership, Employment and Social Infrastructure. The operationalisation of the framework was undertaken through fieldwork. Primary data for the research was collected from the communities, oil and gas companies and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) through surveys and questionnaires. The findings of the research reveal a difference of opinions between the oil and gas companies and stakeholders on the implementation of social sustainability in the region. The findings also reveal that, though, there has been some appreciable progress in the implementation of social sustainability in the region, there is still a lot that needs to be done to achieve the goals of sustainable development of the region. In addition, the analyses of the themes and subthemes necessitated the modification of the conceptual framework to include Human Capital Development and Social Services. The study recommends (1) the reduction of the environmental footprint of oil and gas exploration in the region (2) that the oil and gas companies in the Niger Delta embrace equity and social justice as the guiding principle in their interactions with their host communities (3) that the oil and gas companies use the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) indicators as a roadmap for the comprehensive implementation of sustainable development in the region.